Legal Framework in the RF
The general definition of validation that is equivalent to the Russian term “признание” is most commonly used in legal acts pertaining to validation of education abroad and subsequent recognition of the relevant documents (high school transcripts and other documents proving successful completion of the secondary school).
In Russia two levels of validation are outlined:
- academic validation (recognition of documents on education) and
- professional validation (that allows the applicant to work in the RF).
Hence, the general definition of the term “validation” is borrowed from the Order of the Ministry of Education of the RF as of April 14, 2009 №128:
- Validation and recognition of equivalence of the documents on education in the Russian Federation is performed on the basis of international agreements regulating issues of validation and equivalence of the documents of education and having legal effect of the territory of the Russian Federation, Education Law of the Russian Federation and the present Order taking into consideration international experience on validation issues and recognition of equivalence of documents on education;
- Validation and recognition of equivalence of documents on education in the Russian Federation is performed by the Federal Service of Supervision in the sphere of education and science upon the application of the document bearer.
The first official document which mentions non-formal/informal education in the Russian Federation is the official letter of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of 3 March 2008 #03-369 “On the Contemporary Educational Models”, which said, in particular, that
«…life-long learning is becoming a more and more significant element of contemporary educational systems. As part of the system of life-long learning, both the non-formal education (which includes courses, trainings, short programs) and informal (spontaneous) education (which is mostly self-taught) are becoming more and more important”.
Article 17 of the Russian Federal Law “On Education” approved on 29 December 2012 stipulates that in the Russian Federation education can be received both at educational institutions or outside the formal educational system (e.g. at home or as self-education, etc.).
The Letter of the Ministry of Education and Science of 19 December 2013 № 1367 «On Approving the System of Organization and Implementation of Educational Programs in higher Education” stipulates that the higher educational institution can shorten the length of educational programs for certain individuals by recognizing the results of previously gained education (separate units or modules) and practical experience, e.g. in the vocational educational institutions or in the programs of supplementary education.
The letter also describes the possible procedure of such recognition: the student needs to provide the transcript or some other documents which details the results of the education received.
The existing documents base the recognition of the results of the non-formal and informal education on the evaluation of the official papers provided by the individual (certificates, transcripts, diplomas, other qualifications). However, they call for the creating of the system which will allow assessing the degree of the developments of competences by measuring the corresponding learning outcomes. Read more.